We report a weighted average ΔR value for Moloka'i Island of 52 ± 25 yr using 12 pair-dated dedicatory branch corals from religious archaeological sites and demonstrate that there is no significant temporal variability in ΔR between about AD 700 to 1800.
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The movement of the ice across the surface of the planet also scoured deep valleys, created extensive chains of hills known as moraines, and created extensive lakes, including the Great Lakes.
Understanding the onset and termination of glacial and interglacial cycles is a key part of efforts to understand how Earth’s climate system works and how it responds to changes and disruptions.
These were most likely driven by regular changes in Earth’s orbit and rotation known as the Milankovich Cycles that govern the seasonal timing and intensity of solar energy entering the atmosphere.
Other factors that may have contributed to the formation and cessation of ice ages are the amount of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor) in Earth’s atmosphere, the extent of sea and land-based ice across the northern hemisphere, and shifts in patterns of wind and ocean currents.